Question: What Is Mental Retardation And Its Causes?

What is mental retardation and types?

The onset of the condition occurs during the developmental period, i.e., gestation through age 18 years.

Mental retardation comprises five general categories: borderline, mild, moderate, severe and profound.

Categories are based on scores obtained through use of age-standardized tests of cognitive ability (Table 1)..

What is the number one cause of mental retardation in the world?

Facts about FASD: • It is the leading known cause of preventable mental retardation.

At what age is mental retardation diagnosed?

When is the diagnosis made? The onset of mental retardation is in childhood, before 18 years of age. The diagnosis is generally made after infancy, between the preschool and school-age periods. Sometimes the diagnosis may be made later, at the time when a thorough assessment is performed.

Is retardation a disability?

Intellectual Disability (ID) (formerly called mental retardation) is the most common developmental disability–nearly 6.5 million people in the United States have some level of ID.

What is the meaning of mental retardation?

Mental retardation currently is defined by the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) as “significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning accompanied by significant limitations in adaptive functioning in a least two of the following skills areas: communication, self-care, social skills, self- …

Is mental retardation reversible?

“The same mutation in animals produces learning disorders, which we were able to eliminate in adult mice. Our work and other recent studies suggest that some forms of mental retardation can be reversed, even in the adult brain.”

What is the leading preventable cause of mental retardation?

Congenital Hypothyroidism •It is the most common preventable cause of mental retardation. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of congenital hypothyroidism.

What are the 4 levels of mental retardation?

The DSM-IV classifies mental retardation into four stages based on severity: mild (IQ score of 50-55 to approximately 70), moderate (IQ score of 30-35 to 50-55), severe (IQ score of 20-25 to 35-40), and profound (IQ score of less than 20-25).

What is mental retardation in special education?

Children at the level of educable mental retardation (EMR) are defined by the schools as those who cannot adapt or respond to regular instruction because of subaverage intellectual functioning (generally in the 50 to 70 IQ range), but who have the potential for learning basic academic skills at approximately the first- …

What is mental retardation now called?

The term “intellectual disability” is gradually replacing the term “mental retardation” nationwide.

How can mental retardation be prevented?

Prenatal diagnosis, newborn screening, dietary supplementation or restriction, hormone replacement, vaccination, and immunotherapy are just some of the techniques that have been applied to prevent mental retardation.

Is mental retardation a genetic disorder?

Mental retardation is caused by a number of different factors. Among genetic disorders, Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome are the commonest causes of mental retardation. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of mental retardation. FXS is estimated to affect 1 in 2,500 males and 1 in 8,000 females.

What causes an intellectual disability?

Some of the most common known causes of intellectual disability include fetal alcohol syndrome; genetic and chromosomal conditions, such as Down syndrome and fragile X syndrome; and certain infections during pregnancy. Children who have a sibling with autism are at a higher risk of also having autism spectrum disorder.

How do you deal with intellectual disability?

10 Tips for Working With People With Intellectual DisabilitiesDo not call them kids. … Use clear, simplified language and try speaking slower, not louder. … Set expectations. … Treat them as you would your peers. … Draw boundaries. … Ask them their thoughts and allow them to answer.More items…

What is mental retardation in psychology?

Mental retardation (MR) refers to substantial limitations in present functioning. It starts before age 18 and is characterized by significantly subaverage intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with related limitations in two or more of the following applicable adaptive skill areas: communication. self-care.